Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed; (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories; (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; (F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision; (G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data, including making new revised hypotheses when appropriate; (H) communicate valid conclusions in writing, oral presentations, and through collaborative projects; and (I) use astronomical technology such as telescopes, binoculars, sextants, computers, and software. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to: (A) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of the Sun, Earth, and Moon system through the use of data and modeling; (B) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of objects in the solar system such as the Sun and planets through the use of data and modeling; (C) examine the scale, size, and distance of the stars, Milky Way, and other galaxies through the use of data and modeling; (D) relate apparent versus absolute magnitude to the distances of celestial objects; and (E) demonstrate the use of units of measurement in astronomy, including Astronomical Units and light years. The student knows the role of the Moon in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to: (A) recognize that seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis; (B) explain how latitudinal position affects the length of day and night throughout the year; (C) recognize that the angle of incidence of sunlight determines the concentration of solar energy received on Earth at a particular location; and (D) examine the relationship of the seasons to equinoxes, solstices, the tropics, and the equator. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun.The student is expected to: (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; (B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials; (C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services; (D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and (E) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers. The student recognizes the importance and uses of astronomy in civilization. The student is expected to: (A) observe and record the apparent movement of the Sun and Moon during the day; (B) observe and record the apparent movement of the Moon, planets, and stars in the nighttime sky; and (C) recognize and identify constellations such as Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Orion, Cassiopeia, and constellations of the zodiac. The student is expected to: (A) observe and record data about lunar phases and use that information to model the Sun, Earth, and Moon system; (B) illustrate the cause of lunar phases by showing positions of the Moon relative to Earth and the Sun for each phase, including new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, and waning crescent; (C) identify and differentiate the causes of lunar and solar eclipses, including differentiating between lunar phases and eclipses; and (D) identify the effects of the Moon on tides. The student is expected to: (A) compare and contrast the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets; (B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, natural satellites, and geological activity; (C) relate the role of Newton's law of universal gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of natural and artificial satellites around the planets; and (D) explore the origins and significance of small solar system bodies, including asteroids, comets, and Kuiper belt objects. The student knows the role of the Sun as the star in our solar system. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.
Source: The provisions of this 112.31 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 Tex Reg 5063; amended to be effective August 24, 2010, 35 Tex Reg 7230. Aquatic Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit). Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.
Required prerequisite: one unit of high school Biology.
Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories; (C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers.
Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed; (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories; (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting, handling, and maintaining appropriate equipment and technology; (F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range; (G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures; (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data; (I) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and (J) communicate valid conclusions using essential vocabulary and multiple modes of expression such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom.
Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative.
The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world.Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact.All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter.The student is expected to: (A) classify different aquatic organisms using tools such as dichotomous keys; (B) compare and describe how adaptations allow an organism to exist within an aquatic environment; and (C) compare differences in adaptations of aquatic organisms to fresh water and marine environments. The student knows about the interdependence and interactions that occur in aquatic environments.The student is expected to: (A) identify how energy flows and matter cycles through both fresh water and salt water aquatic systems, including food webs, chains, and pyramids; and (B) evaluate the factors affecting aquatic population cycles. The student understands how human activities impact aquatic environments.Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. In Astronomy, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving.